Using a password is arguably the most common and popular security measure available for most types of accounts and information storage. But unfortunately, it is often one of the most vulnerable to hackings and other types of cyber-attacks.

A 2016 study revealed that hackers and other cybercriminals usually perform the most significant data breaches with the aim of stealing individual identities. However, after these attacks take place, the most common response from companies is simply to change your password to avoid having it happen to you.

The problem with this is that using a password has a lot of flaws and imperfections. For starters, passwords don’t generally provide a very strong way to identify a person and basically, anyone who gets their hands on a password can simply log on to an account and do or take whatever they wish.

Additionally, an account’s security level is based only on the strength of the password being used. And most of the time, this isn’t a very strong measure since people don’t usually want to remember long strings of upper and lowercase letters, numbers and special characters. Instead, users typically use a password that is simple and easy to remember. In other words, they unknowingly use something that’s easy to hack.

Because of the deficiencies with using a single password, many companies are now turning to more secure solutions, such as email encryption and multi-factor authentication, to control account access and provide users with alternatives to traditional passwords.

Still, this might leave you wondering what precisely multi-factor authentication is and how it can help improve your online safety and security.

What Is Multi-Factor Authentication?

In simple terms, multi-factor authentication is the process used to identify an individual online by validating more than one claim from several different categories of authentication, which are presented by the user.

The process is also sometimes referred to as advanced authentication, step-up authentication, or two-factor authentication. Regardless, it is simply the means of verifying an individual’s identity by using more than just a simple password as recognition.
In most cases, multi-factor authentication will involve two or more of the following basic elements:

Something is known by the user, such as a PIN or password.
Something owned by the user, such as a mobile device or email account.
A user biometric, such as a fingerprint, facial scan, or voice recognition.

Essentially, the concept of multi-factor authentication understands that no authentication factor is completely secure. In fact, any type of authentication factor will have both its own strengths and weaknesses. However, multi-factor authentication improves identification by using a second or third factor to compensate for the weaknesses of the other factors being used.

By now, it should be easy to see why multi-factor authentication is needed to ensure the safety and security of your online presence. Below, we’ll go over a few of the benefits of using multi-factor authentication.

Increased Security

As we’ve already mentioned, traditional password security is no longer as effective as it once was. Fortunately, multi-factor authentication can supplement a traditional password with an additional factor that cannot easily be guessed, such as a verification code sent to your mobile device or a given biometric factor such as your fingerprint or a facial scan.

These additional factors make it much harder for a cybercriminal to get into your accounts unless they actually possess all the factors required by the system.

Simple Account Access with Single Sign-On Software

Most people assume that using multi-factor authentication will make logging into their accounts a more complicated and time-consuming process. However, the added security of multi-factor authentication allows companies to provide their users will login options such as single sign-on.

Single sign-on, or SSO, is the process of authentication which allows a user to gain access to multiple applications or accounts by using a single set of login credentials. Therefore, once a user is authenticated, they will be logged onto the single sign-on account and will have access to any other apps or accounts that are covered by the software.

One of the biggest challenges in implementing multi-factor authentication is the belief that it will make logging in more complicated. But when combined with software such as single sign-on, multi-factor authentication benefits internet users by making it easier to sign into a variety of different apps at the same time.

Regulatory Compliance

Today, there are many different compliance standards when it comes to organisations that use and store their customer’s sensitive information. And, in many cases, some laws specify the need for these organisations to implement safety features such as multi-factor authentication.

So, not only does multi-factor authentication keep your personal identifiable information safe and simplify logging into your accounts, but it is also a step towards regulatory compliance for most companies and organisations, which ensures that your online safety is held in the highest priority.

Univention Corporate Server (UCS) provides a shared trust and security context called a domain. This means, the members of the domain know and trust each other. To get access to resources and services provided within the domain, users and computers have to join the domain.
Linux clients, such as Ubuntu and its derivates, could be joined to a UCS domain for a long time, but it always involved a rather long process of copying commands from the Univention documentation to the command line of the involved systems.

In April of 2018 Univention released the new "Ubuntu Domain Join Assistant" which provides both a graphical interface, making the whole join process a lot easier and time-saving, but also a CLI tool to automate the domain join of many Ubuntu clients.
Let‘s get started – the graphical way:
Let‘s assume we just installed a Univention Corporate Server in the current version of 4.3 and a plain Ubuntu 18.04 client – both with an out-of-the-box feature set and without any modifications. Using the optional software component "DHCP server" in UCS is not strictly necessary, but recommended.

Now log in to your Ubuntu client with a user. To install in Ubuntu 18.04/16.04/14.04/Linux Mint 19/18/17 open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the Terminal:

iMusic is a powerful piece of software that offers a huge range of flexibility in managing your music contents. iMusic specializes in managing your iTunes music collection as well. In fact, iMusic transforms the entire usability and flexibility of iTunes in an easier manner.
For example, you can directly sync your local and iTunes music collection directly with your iOS/Android device with just one click. You can also grab music from any other source like YouTube, Spotify, Dailymotion etc.
However, iMusic isn’t a complete alternative for iTunes. There are still tons of music on the iTunes store that you can’t listen anywhere else. There are also a number of conveniences from iTunes that you definitely don’t want to miss out. However, iMusic makes your life a lot easier with a number of various features and easier workflow.
The thing that really makes iMusic great is the ability to grab content from almost all the popular online content sites and syncing your music with any of your iOS/Android device(s).
Let’s figure out the usability and benefits along with the effort required for enjoying iMusic.


At first, let’s have a look at the app.

DVD Creator is an excellent software that offers great flexibility and features as a fine and powerful DVD creator. The tool is very simplistic to use. According to the developer – Wondershare, this tool is able to fulfill all your requirements for managing your DVD. It’s available on both Windows and Mac.
You can directly just select all the media contents you want to write to your DVD and let the tool do the job for you. There are a number of options you can change, for example, the writing speed and the DVD format. Got an image (ISO/IMG or similar) file? Let DVD Creator do the job. It burns the image file without any issue.
There are a number of available tools on the internet that can perform similar jobs. Some are premium, others are free. DVD Creator from Wondershare is a freemium tool that can do a lot of things. Let’s find out if it can be a worthy component to have at disposal.


When you start up the app, this is the first screen you’ll get:

Arrongin and Telinkrin themes are fairly new but looks great while giving a nice flavor to the Nautilus and Gnome Tweak Tool. These themes are modern and refined re-interpretation of Ambiance theme. Creator tried to give a modern look to Nautilus and Tweak-tool and worked on even smallest details of the theme. Both themes pack Gnome shell theme as well to match with Gtk theme and released under GNU General Public License V2 or later. If you are using distribution other than Ubuntu/Linux Mint then download the theme directly from its page and install it in this location "~/.themes" or "/usr/share/themes". Arrongin and Telinkrin themes are in active development that means if you find any kind of bug or issue with theme then report it to get fixed in the next update. In the following screenshots, we have used Zafiro icon set.

Available for Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic/18.10/and other Ubuntu based distributions
To install Arrongin and Telinkrin GTK themes in Ubuntu/Linux Mint open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the Terminal:

That's it

Python: A fairly simple, readable, interpreted, general-purpose and high-level programming language.
We are starting a tutorial on Python 3 programming language, you can call it web-based-Bootcamp. In this series, 'Learn Python 3' the aim is to teach you Python 3 as quickly as possible so you can start building programs. 'Learn Python 3' course(Tutorial) is for people of any age, doesn't matter if you haven't programmed before in Python or new to programming. We shall start from very basics of programming and by time we will be learning advance stuff and deep dive into Python.
Currently, Python has two versions available 2 and 3. Many companies are still using Python 2 and many useful software written in Python 2 that's why it's being used widely, on the other hand, people are adopting Python 3 and porting their Python 2 software to Python 3. In this tutorial series, we will use latest version of Python 3 and it's very easy to learn Python 2 after you acquire knowledge of Python 3. There are some syntax differences in both versions. With time, we'll construct tutorial as per user needs and make it better for all of you.

You'll learn in this tutorial:
  • Traditional 'Hello world' program
  • Variables

First of all you need to setup Python on your system. If you are using Linux or Mac then your OS have it installed already, if you want to get latest version of Python then follow this guide for Linux. For Mac and Windows check official website of Python.

Note: Before you start, make sure you run each given code to understand that how things work!

Your first Python program

If you are a new to programming then today you are going to write very first program. It is traditional and almost every programmer has done it regardless of programming language.
In Python it is very very simple to do "Hello World!" program. You just need to write one line. There are numerous ways to run Python program, we keep it simple for now. In Linux, just type the version of Python installed on your system for example: python3.5.
If you don't want to install Python or don't know how to install it then you can use online Python console called "".

We are going to do it other way by creating a file and write our code in it. Then we go to Terminal and run file with Python3. You can see this way in the following screenshot.
Once you are ready with Python console then type the following code in it and hit enter to run it.
print("Hello World!")
You will see the output like this:

Congratulations, on writing your first program in Python. Lets see what we are doing here:
print( ) => it prints message to the screen, or other output device. The message can be anything string or object.
"Hello World!" => It is a message between double quotes, it is called string. We can surround string with double " " quotes or single ' ' quotes, both quotation marks functions same for example 'Hello World!'.

Variables in Python

In programming variables used to store data or we can call them containers where we put something in them in-order to access stored data later. Every variable hold certain value(s) and variables are mutable that means we can change variable's value at any time in our program.
Variables can store all sort of data like: numbers, strings, booleans and objects.

There are some rules when defining a variable in Python programming language:
  • Variable names should be descriptive, for example: my_message. Avoid using very short variables such as my_m, you will scratch your head later understanding your program.
  • Be careful using lowercase letter 'l' and uppercase letter 'O' because they can be mixed with 1 and 0.
  • Don't use Python reserved keywords and function names.
  • Variables can only contain letters, numbers and underscores.
  • Variable can't start with numbers.
  • Spaces are not permitted in variables.

Lets see how to create variables:

We will modify our first 'Hello World' program to show you, how variables work!

message = "Hello World!"

First line of the program, the string 'Hello World!' is stored in variable called 'message'. We can have give any name to the variable.
Then we are using print function to output our message on the screen. Also, we can defined variable 'message' as many times as we want in our program.
We can reassign a new value to 'message' in the same program and there won't be any issue. Lets see an example:
message = "Hello World!"

message = 'We are defining another variable'

Another example with numbers:
number = 100

Assign variable to another variable
You can also assign a variable which has a value to new variable. See following example for more clarification:
number = 100

new_number_variable = number
In this example, we assigned value of variable 'number' to new variable called 'new_number_variable'. Now we can use 'new_number_variable' to print the same value.

Compact assignments
Python allows us to make multiple assignment in just one line, it is useful when you want to make your program compact but make less readable/complex:
varX, varY, varZ = 'Hello', 50, '1 Penny'

Multiple assignments
We can assign same value to multiple variables. In the following example, all variables hold the same value, you can print each variable to check its value:
my_number = number = last_number = first_number = 200

That's it for today.
Stay tuned for more tutorials on Python 3 programming language! Happy coding.

If you are fond of dark theme whether it's your personal liking or for comfort of your eyes, then you landed on the right page. Today, we introduce you to the very elegant theme called "Nordic". This Gtk theme is created using the awesome Nord color pallete which looks amazing on the desktop, it is released under GNU General Public License V3. Nordic also pack theme for Gnome Shell, and support almost every desktop environment such as Gnome, Cinnamon, Mate, Xfce, Mate, Budgie, Panteon, etc. If you are using distribution other than Ubuntu/Linux Mint then download the theme directly from its page and install it in this location "~/.themes" or "/usr/share/themes". Since Nordic theme pack is in active development that means if you find any kind of bug or issue with it then report it to get fixed.
Zafiro icon set is a perfect blend with Nordic theme for your desktop. Minimalist icons created with the flat-desing technique, utilizing washed out colors and always accompanied by white. The priority is simplicity. Both are designed by the same person and are fairly new in the eye-candy town and released under AGPLv3 license. We should always have a door opened for new stuff and should always give a try, who know new things could be our next favorite. The icons are compatible with most of the Linux desktop environments such as Gnome, Unity, Cinnamon, Mate, Lxde, Xfce and others. You will find many application icons in this pack, if you want to add new icons or want to report missing icons or bug then report it to creator and hopefully it will get fixed as soon as possible in the next update.

Python is a high-level interpreted programming language. The first version of Python was released in 1991. In this article we are not going to discuss what kind of language it is or how you can use it but to show you how you can install it on your Linux system.
If you are a Python programmer or you want to run some program which requires latest Python version then you are on the right page, we will show you how you can install latest Python version on your Linux(Debian/Ubuntu/Linux Mint/other distributions), currently Python reached at 3.7.x version. Making other Python version default in Linux can make Python applications and desktop components unusable which use certain version of Python. It is better not to set any Python as default in Linux (PS: You can set as default, if you know how to fix if something goes wrong). It is easy to revert back any Python version. Lets start...

Python 3.7.x

We are going to show you two ways to install Python 3.7.x, the PPA method is for Ubuntu/Linux Mint/and Ubuntu dervatives. The second method is universal that means you can install Python 3.7.x on any Linux distribution (Fedora, CentOS, RedHat, openSUSE, Manjaro, ArchLinux etc.)

Install Python 3.7.x using PPA in Ubuntu/Linux Mint

PPA is fairly simple way to install Python:

Available for Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic/16.04 Xenial/14.04 Trusty/Linux Mint 19/18/17/and other related Ubuntu derivatives
To install Python 3.7.x in Ubuntu/Linux Mint open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the Terminal:

If you want to install Python 3.6 then use this command(Ubuntu 16.04/14.04/Linux Mint 18/17):

For Python 3.5 use this command (Ubuntu 18.04/14.04/Linux Mint 19/17):

For Python 3.4 use this command (Ubuntu 18.04/16.04/Linux Mint 19/18):

For Python 3.3 use this command (Ubuntu 18.04/16.04/14.04/Linux Mint 19/18/17):

Install Python 3.7.x using source

Using this method you can install Python 3.7.1 in any Linux distribution (Debian, Fedora, CentOS, Manjaro, ArchLinux, openSUSE, Ubuntu etc.)

That's it

The logo creates a small window through which people recognize the identity of your company. Now to create a logo is a very important step for building brand identity, especially if you start an online business. Find yourself that you do not have any knowledge of Photoshop or any other design program, then think about hiring a professional designer to design your own logo, but find that you have a limited budget. Is there any other way to do it? In the post, we will talk about a free online logo service called DesignEvo.

Unlike other graphic design software, DesignEvo works online without downloading so you can design a special logo directly in your browser. DesignEvo contains thousands of professionally designed templates that can be easily modified to matches your brand, your company or your website.

In past, you may have used Faenza icon theme or you still have it set on your desktop. Delft icons are revived version of Faenza and forked from Faenza icon theme, maybe it is not right to say 'revived' because it looks little different from Faenza theme and at the same time it stays close to the original Faenza icons, it is released under license GNU General Public License V3. The theme was named after a dutch city, which is known for its history, its beauty, and Faenza in Italy. The author who is maintaining Delft icons saw that Faenza icons haven't been updated from some years and thought to carry this project. There are some icons adopted from the Obsidian icon theme.
Delft icon pack offer many variants (Delft, Delft-Amber, Delft-Aqua, Delft-Blue, Delft-Dark, Delft-Gray, Delft-Green, Delft-Mint, Delft-Purple, Delft-Red, Delft-Teal) including light and dark versions for light/dark themes, you can choose appropriate one according to your desktop theme. These icons are compatible with most of the Linux desktop environments such as Gnome, Unity, Cinnamon, Mate, Lxde, Xfce and others. Many application icons available in this icons pack and if you find any missing icon or want to include something in this icon pack or face any kind of bug then report it to creator.

It is feels bit difficult to describe this theme we are going to introduce here today. Sweet theme pack looks and feel very different on the desktop but at the same time make the Linux desktop elegant and eye catching. Maybe these are not perfect looking themes available but it lineup in the perfect theme queue. You may say, I don't like it in screenshots, let me tell you that you should install it on your system and if you don't like then you already have option to remove it. So there is no harm to try a new thing, maybe this is next best theme pack for your Linux desktop.
There is not much information available about themes on its page; this pack offers three variants Sweet, Sweet-Ambar and Sweet-Dark, you can choose whatever fits your needs. These themes are available for Gtk-3 and Gtk-2, and targets multiple desktop environments such as Gnome, Gnome Shell, Cinnamon, Xfce, Mate, Budgie etc. We are offering Sweet themes via our PPA for Ubuntu/Linux Mint. If you are using distribution other than Ubuntu/Linux Mint then download directly from theme page and install it on this location "~/.themes" or "/usr/share/themes". If you find any kind of bug or issue within this theme then report it to author and hopefully it will get fixed very soon in the next update.

sweet theme

There are plenty of nice themes available for Gnome desktop and many of them are in active development. Stylish theme pack is one of the great looking pack around since 2014 and constantly evolving. It offers stylish clean and flat design themes for Gtk-3 and Gtk-2, including Gnome shell themes. Stylish theme pack is based Materia theme and support almost every desktop environment such as Gnome, Cinnamon, Mate, Xfce, Mate, Budgie, Panteon, etc.
We are offering Stylish themes via our PPA for Ubuntu/Linux Mint. If you are using distribution other than Ubuntu/Linux Mint then download this pack directly from its page and install it in this location "~/.themes" or "/usr/share/themes". Since Stylish theme pack is in active development that means if you encounter any kind of bug or issue with it then report it to get fixed in the next update.

univention corporate server
In this article, we will take a look at Univention Corporate Server (UCS) and It is also sort of brief tutorial on UCS. Before we get into it, lets talk about an overview.

1: Overview

First, what is Univention Corporate Server (UCS)? It is an enterprise Linux distribution that is built by Univention. It is their goal to simplify the access to applications and devices for organizations and Univention heavily uses Open Source software for that. Basically, this involves three core topics:
  • A central identity management system
  • An app store-like environment for applications
  • And, of course, IT infrastructure and device management
All this is brought together into one product called Univention Corporate Server.

Vimix themes are around from quite a while, it's been in development since 2013 and continuously evolving. The creator of vimix is dedicated to work on Linux eyecandy, you can checkout other themes as well from same creator: Qogir, Matcha, Canta and make sure to give feedback to the creator that what you think of the work done.
Vimix is a Material design flat theme for GTK and Gnome Shell based on Flat-Plat theme. It supports most of the desktop environments such as: Gnome, Gnome Shell, Cinnamon, Xfce, Mate, Budgie etc. There are two variants for the themes normal and color, the main different in themes variants is title-bar buttons. Vimix theme pack is available via our PPA for Ubuntu/Linux Mint. If you are using distribution other than Ubuntu/Linux Mint then download file directly from theme pack page and install it in this location "~/.themes" or "/usr/share/themes". If you find any kind of bug or issue within this theme then report it to creator and hopefully it will get fixed very soon.