Univention Corporate Server (UCS) provides a shared trust and security context called a domain. This means, the members of the domain know and trust each other. To get access to resources and services provided within the domain, users and computers have to join the domain.
Linux clients, such as Ubuntu and its derivates, could be joined to a UCS domain for a long time, but it always involved a rather long process of copying commands from the Univention documentation to the command line of the involved systems.

In April of 2018 Univention released the new "Ubuntu Domain Join Assistant" which provides both a graphical interface, making the whole join process a lot easier and time-saving, but also a CLI tool to automate the domain join of many Ubuntu clients.
Let‘s get started – the graphical way:
Let‘s assume we just installed a Univention Corporate Server in the current version of 4.3 and a plain Ubuntu 18.04 client – both with an out-of-the-box feature set and without any modifications. Using the optional software component "DHCP server" in UCS is not strictly necessary, but recommended.

Now log in to your Ubuntu client with a user. To install in Ubuntu 18.04/16.04/14.04/Linux Mint 19/18/17 open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the Terminal:

univention corporate server
In this article, we will take a look at Univention Corporate Server (UCS) and It is also sort of brief tutorial on UCS. Before we get into it, lets talk about an overview.

1: Overview

First, what is Univention Corporate Server (UCS)? It is an enterprise Linux distribution that is built by Univention. It is their goal to simplify the access to applications and devices for organizations and Univention heavily uses Open Source software for that. Basically, this involves three core topics:
  • A central identity management system
  • An app store-like environment for applications
  • And, of course, IT infrastructure and device management
All this is brought together into one product called Univention Corporate Server.

All browsers are not the same when it comes to online security. There has been a lot of discussion in the past couple of years about how to stay safe online, and people have begun wondering just how secure their web browsers are.

One of the most important components of browser security is how quickly vulnerabilities are fixed. Any browser is liable to being hacked using new exploits, so it’s important that fixes are made promptly and sent out to users before they risk being exposed.
Many people who are aware of online security issues are already using tools like VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) and antivirus packages, which are important defences for keeping yourself secure online. However, some browsers can undermine that extra security.

A notable risk in browsers that is especially pertinent to VPN users is WebRTC IP leaking. WebRTC (Web Real Time Communication) is a framework for letting websites easily send peer-to-peer audio and video, but it’s also a security risk as it can reveal users’ IP addresses even from behind a VPN. If you’re worried that this or any other issue is posing a threat to your data, read on to find out the security pros and cons of some of the most popular browser options.

Mozilla Firefox

Firefox is favoured by a lot of security-minded users because it is open-source software managed by a non-profit company, so there is less opportunity or incentive for it to track its users.

Regular browser updates in Firefox are sent out every couple of months. However, when new vulnerabilities are discovered, Mozilla promises to release ‘hotfixes’ in less than a day.

Firefox has a built-in setting to disable WebRTC, as well as numerous extensions for improving your online security such as NoScript which allows you to disable scripts on every webpage other than those you trust.

Firefox also comes with built-in Do Not Track functionality, and container options so that you can open notoriously snoop-focused apps like Facebook in their own silo without access to the rest of your device. It also offers an insecure password warning if a site might be able to steal your data, and comes with built-in phishing and malware protection.

Verdict: rapid updates and a raft of defences as standard make this the most secure of the best-known browsers.

Google Chrome

Since its first release in 2009, Google Chrome has steadily grown to become the most popular browser by a wide margin. On desktop, Chrome now commands almost 70% of market share.

Initially there was much skepticism about Chrome’s security, since Google makes a lot of its money from its users’ information. However, while Chrome collects information just like other Google services, it has also introduced powerful security features like in-built protection against malware and phishing, as well as a Do Not Track feature.

Chrome was the first major browser to start sandboxing tabs, meaning that the browser ‘engine’ - the part that fetches and displays web pages - doesn’t have any access to system commands. This makes the browser hard to hack, and has given it a reputation for security.

Chrome also receives updates more often than any other browser. Since Chrome is the biggest kid on the block it’s also of most interest to hackers, so having a high update frequency with patches for exploits is important.

However, while Chrome is otherwise fairly secure, there is no option to turn off WebRTC. It can be disabled with extensions, such as WebRTC Control, but VPN users would do well to double check that their IP is not being leaked. To check if WebRTC is leaking your IP address in Chrome, use a free tool like HMA!’s WebRTC leak checker.

Verdict: secure enough for most people’s daily web use. Joint VPN and Chrome users will want to make sure they either disable WebRTC, or switch to a VPN provider that offers built-in WebRTC leak blocking.

Apple Safari

Individual tabs in Safari are not sandboxed, but Safari itself, like all official apps on MacOS, is sandboxed by the operating system.

Safari wins serious security points for its anti-phishing filters and optional pop-up blocking, but does have security weaknesses. It rarely updates, and in 2018 was the least updated of any available browser.

The most recent update did include patches for major flaws that were allowing password spoofing and auto-filled data theft, but currently WebRTC can’t be turned off in Safari even when using extensions.

Verdict: recent patches have made Safari a much more secure option that it used to be. However, VPN users will need to ensure that their VPN is blocking WebRTC leaks while using this browser.

Microsoft Edge

When Microsoft revealed the successor to Internet Explorer (IE), they promised that it would address the security concerns that many had with its predecessor. Removing ActiveX and other tools that were often the source of exploits was a good start, but Edge is still far from the most secure browser.

Edge usually receives updates on a monthly or near-monthly basis. This is on the longer side of what is considered a good update frequency to fix vulnerabilities before they affect too many users, but is more frequent by far than Safari.

There is no way to disable WebRTC in Edge natively or with extensions, so VPN users should be wary of using this browser.

Verdict: while there are improvements over IE, Microsoft’s new browser is still not as secure as its competitors.

Avast Secure Browser

Avast Secure Browser was created by Avast, the company known for its antivirus software. While fairly new and not well-known, the browser comes with some helpful security features.

Avast Secure Browser is based on Chromium, the open source project that Chrome is also built on. When the Chromium code base gets updated with security fixes, they can be rolled out to all the browsers involved in the project. Avast Secure Browser should get security updates as quickly as Chrome, though in the past other Chromium-based browsers have often lagged behind Google’s own browser by an update or two.

WebRTC can be turned off in Avast Secure Browser using the Adblock feature. In addition to Adblock, there are also other built-in security tools such as anti-tracking and anti-phishing features built in to the browser.

Verdict: a secure option, with some great extra features.


The TOR browser is part of The Onion Router project, which disguises web traffic by routing it through their network of servers. TOR has gained a reputation as the ultimate browser for online privacy, but it does have its limitations. TOR can be incredibly slow due to web traffic passing through multiple servers, and without a VPN your web traffic can still be intercepted between your computer and the TOR network.

TOR releases updates every couple of weeks or so, though since TOR routes traffic through its servers, there is less chance of exploits providing access to users’ computers in the first place.

There is no support for WebRTC in TOR, so you should not be at risk of IP leaks.

Verdict: the most secure browser, though too slow for regular use.

When it comes to getting your business up and running, there are many million-dollar questions you need to ask yourself. That’s why in comparison to all of the finances, staff employment, management, marketing, and sales strategies, some things just seem trivial at the moment. But you’ll be surprised how these “trivial” things often have a great impact on the way your company presents itself in the world of business!

One of such often neglected trivial aspects is the phone service you have. If you’re thinking, “What about that? Any phone will just do!” Then you need to think again. Depending on your needs, the right phone system will not only ensure the professional image of your business, but it can also cut a lot of the costs off of your financial reports.

Different Phone Services to Choose From

That being said, your options lie between Traditional Landlines and Virtual Phone Systems.

1. Traditional Landlines (PSTNs)

PSTNs stand for public switched telephone networks or landlines as we know them. They’re supported by a local or regional phone company, and they use traditional copper wiring to run. To make an internal extension between different divisions, you’ll need to install Private Branch Extension (PBX) hardware on your premises.

Pros: Landlines are the oldest in the history of verbal communication, and consequently, the most tested and reliable. Installing PBX also enables for call-transferring and call-directories.
Cons: Very limiting when it comes to remote work or regular working-trips, and installing PBX hardware costs some money.
When to choose: If you don’t have a fast or good internet connection, landlines are the best fit for you.

2. Virtual Phone Services

Virtual services use an internet connection rather than just relying on local phone companies. There are IP PBX systems that use virtual systems. They still work on the same PBX hardware, but use the internet, so they’re considered some sort of a hybrid. Other services, which are becoming increasingly popular, use the VoIP.

Pros: They are a great way to bypass all of the hardware hassles and just let the cloud take care of your calls.

Virtual Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) Services

VoIP phones run on your internet connection instead of the copper wires and provide great options for small businesses and large corporations alike. Using a small business VoIP, smaller businesses can enjoy features such as call queues, automated attendants, as well as computer integration and synchronization. Such features were only previously available using expensive PBX hardware, but not anymore. VoIP systems also allow telecommuting employees to have access to their business numbers through their mobile phones.

Pros: Easy to install, premium services that are automated and synchronized phone system, no hardware setup expenses, allows for a great deal of work flexibility and telecommuting.
Cons: They rely solely on the internet connection. If you frequently have trouble with your internet connection or it’s slow, your work will be affected negatively.
When to choose: If you have a reliable internet connection and you don’t have a fixed workspace or your employees have to do a lot of business trips for their work.

On-premises Vs. Cloud-based VoIP

You can further choose between hosting your own VoIP... or subscribing to a cloud-hosting service provider.

For an on-premises VoIP system, there will be an upfront investment that goes into getting and installing the hardware needed. While you’ll have complete control over the system, you’ll need to ensure that your IT staff are qualified for maintaining, repairing and upgrading the system.

Cloud-based VoIPs require no hardware nor any maintenance and repair on your side, the service provider takes care of it all. All you have to is pay the periodical subscriptions, and enjoy the upgrades and features they provide you with. The only downside of the cloud-based VoIP is that you don’t have any control over it. If the system breaks down, you’ll have to wait for the provider to fix it.

Choosing the right phone service for your business is far from trivial. With the right phone service, you can ensure that your employees can be professional at all times and that the image of your company remains pristine. Whether your employees are working remotely, constantly traveling for work, or are in different departments in your company, providing them with the proper communication tools will do wonders for their productivity - and your company.

It's a multi-screen world we live in now. Mobiles, laptops, tabs, desktops, are all different sized screens. Responsive websites answer to all those types of screens so that what you're viewing scales according to the device you're using. If you don't optimize your site for this, users would have to zoom, scroll, and resize unnecessarily for comfortable viewing. This is sure to lead people to leave your site, potentially costing you a lot of potential customers.

Your site should naturally reformat to give a superior user experience that is appropriate to their gadget and can give your site various advantages.

Responsive means that your website measures the viewport (the screen where it’s being viewed) and displays a version of your content optimized to display well at or below that resolution.

here are 6 tips to make your website more responsive.

1. Mobile friendly

Statistics say that more than 20% of searches on Google are carried out through mobiles. This percentage increases as more and more people own smartphones. When Google introduced its algorithm change, which was dubbed as 'mobilegeddon' the biggest takeaway from that was that sites which do not cater well to mobile users will not perform well in Google mobile searches.

2. Start small

In essence, a website is responsive using HTML alone. It gets a bit more complicated when you start defining elements with pixel widths starting with a desktop design at a fixed width. The best way to create a responsive site starts with the smallest screen size and work your way up using media queries and progressive CSS designs coupled with some bandwidth optimized images.

3. Content

Content is still king. Your website needs to have fresh, updated and well-written content. Take note of the headlines you use, as that could be the difference between a user reaching your site and a user not bothering to go there. Keeping users in the know through content is key, so always keep your customers updated on new products, prices, etc.

4. Keep it simple

Your menu options should be easy to reach without users’ reading pages on end to get to it. Keeping it simple will help upload time since any slow site will lose a customer after customer.

5. Testing

Specialist on data analytics and web development expert, Drew Roberts, is passionate about growth marketing and takes these kinds of challenges on because you might not know the first thing about coding, HTML or media queries. Plus, you need to know how to test your website and if it's really become responsive.

6. Other considerations

The real work is in understanding your business model, determining your conversion goals, mapping out the traffic flow on your site, understanding what functionality you actually need for your website and a host of other business considerations.

Just some year back, a responsive website has been just good to have. Now it's a must-have. But don't introduce a lot of complexity in your designs so it doesn't come back to haunt you. Your ultimate aim is to give great customers' and viewers' experience while at your website.

PyCharm is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) specially used for Python programming language. It is cross-platform available for Linux, Mac and Windows, and developed by JetBrains and offers two versions community edition and professional edition. It provides code analysis, a graphical debugger, an integrated unit tester, integration with version control systems (VCSes), and supports web development with Django.
The Community Edition is released under the Apache License, and the Professional Edition released under a proprietary license - this has extra features. Both editions let you write neat and maintainable code while the IDE helps you keep quality under control with PEP8 checks, testing assistance, smart refactorings, and a host of inspections. PyCharm is designed by programmers, for programmers, to provide all the tools you need for productive Python development.

  • Coding Assistance and Analysis, with code completion, syntax and error highlighting, linter integration, and quick fixes
  • Project and Code Navigation: specialized project views, file structure views and quick jumping between files, classes, methods and usages
  • Python Refactoring: including rename, extract method, introduce variable, introduce constant, pull up, push down and others
  • Support for web frameworks: Django, web2py and Flask
  • Integrated Python Debugger
  • Integrated Unit Testing, with line-by-line code coverage
  • Google App Engine Python Development
  • Version Control Integration: unified user interface for Mercurial, Git, Subversion, Perforce and CVS with changelists and merge
  • PyCharm 50+ IDE plugins of different nature, including support for additional VCS

Install via Snap package

Available for Ubuntu 18.10 Cosmic/18.04 Bionic/16.04 Xenial/Linux Mint 19.x/18/and other related Ubuntu derivatives
To install PyCharm Community and Professional edition in Ubuntu/Linux Mint open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the terminal:

For Pycharm Professional or Educational use these command:

Install via PPA

Available for Ubuntu 18.10 Cosmic/18.04 Bionic/16.04 Xenial/14.04 Trusty/Linux Mint 19.x/18/17/and other related Ubuntu derivatives
To install PyCharm Community and Professional edition in Ubuntu/Linux Mint open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the terminal:

For Pycharm Professional run this command:
That's it

Coding is a fundamental activity for software developers and programmers all over the world. There are literally hundreds of programming languages. This makes coding an exciting activity. The type of program that’s created largely depends on the programmer’s imagination. Moreover, there’s always something new in the world of programming.

Here are the latest updates in the coding world.

1. A DNA-based computer system is now here

After much research and development at the California Institute of Technology, a molecular computer system is now with us. Research scientists have created DNA molecules which are fully self-assembling. They are also re-programmable. Led by Professor Erik Winfree, the team of researchers has created DNA strands that can perform small processing tasks by executing 6-bit algorithms.

Their computer system uses DNA molecules to accept six-bit binary numbers as input, during processing and output. The computer system has 700 DNA strands. Selecting specific strands out of this collection allows computer scientists to reprogram the molecular system so as to execute different tasks. This new system provides hope that we can create biochemical computer systems in the near future.

2. Verbally challenged people can now speak clearly through computers

A group of neuroengineering specialists has developed a system that transforms thought into recognizable, clear speech. This system combines Artificial Intelligence (AI) and speech synthesis to create a direct channel of communication between the brain and computers. In a breakthrough at Columbia University, neuroengineers have created computer software which can monitor brain activity and relay it through audible words. This new software has undergone the testing services that are required before human trials. In the comprehensive testing process, it has been assessed for its capacity, security, and engagement with humans, sd well as the ease of customization. Not only does the new software provide a direct path of communication between our brains and computers. It also gives a ray of hope for those suffering from conditions such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), stroke, and other challenges.

3. Light is now effectively used for computer processing

The fundamental activity in processing is known as the logic operation. Traditionally, it has been accomplished using wired circuits and electricity. After groundbreaking research at the University of Tokyo, computer scientists have used a combination of chemicals, electric fields and ultraviolet light to perform these logic operations. This chemical-based system uses self-assembling molecules as well. The molecules either allow light to pass successfully or block it. In this way, they execute the 1 or 0 binary values. According to a lecturer and researcher Yoshimitsu Itoh, it is akin to creating programs using the fundamental rules of chemistry. In the long term, this technology can be used to create high-performance computer chips that consume minute amounts of power.

There is immense potential in the developments which are possible in the field of computer science. They are led by researchers, computer scientists, and enthusiasts. Biochemical processing, light-based computation, and chemical circuits are all now a reality. We look forward to many more groundbreaking innovations in the near future. As a matter of fact, computers could be just as powerful as our minds over time!

In the part one of this series, we showed you how to use variables in Python 3. In this tutorial, we are going to work with Strings and Numbers.
Note: Before you start, make sure you run each given code to understand that how things work!


String is a data type in programming language, strings in Python are very simple at initial glance but we can use them in many ways.
A string is a sequence of letters, numbers or symbols enclosed in single or double quotation marks. String are immutable data type that means we can't change it once defined. Strings does not require to be defined in advance.

String defined using double quotation marks:
greeting = "Hello There!"

String defined using single quotes:
hint = 'Using single quotes'

Using apostrophe in a string. Well, there are two ways of doing it:
saying = "If you can't help yourself then nobody will."
The other way of using apostrophe with escape character, if you still want to use single quotes:
saying = 'If you can\'t help yourself then nobody will.'

Combining and concatenating strings using addition operator, in simple words you can join multiple strings:
example_concatenation_string = "First part" + ' and ' + "last part"
print("Lap" + 'top')
print("Another: " + example_concatenation_string)

Multiplying a string, you will find it useful later:
example_multiply = "Hey There!"*5

Know the length of the string using len function:
print(len("Hey There!"))
length_of_string = "This is a string."

Strings can be written on multiple lines:
quote = """A person who never made a
 mistake never tried 
 anything new."""

Find out if the sub-string is present in a string:
quote = "A person who never made a mistake never tried anything new."
print("mistake" in quote)

print("learning" in "You are learning Python 3.")

Special characters in strings:
We can do formatting in strings using special characters, for instance we need line break, tabs or other formatting. These formatting can be done in a string using special character called escape.

Line break in a string:
quote = "Albert Einstien said:\nA person who never made a mistake never tried anything new."

Tab in a string:

Printing a backslash character:

Making string omit the recognition of escape character:
print(r"Omitting these escape characters \t and \n.")

String formatting
Convert numerical values to string using str function:

Use numbers in a string:
print("He is " + str(23) + " years old.")
We will see string formatting in more detail in upcoming articles.


Numbers are important data type and used in every program, for example: score in games, represent data, store information in web applications and so on. Numbers without decimal considered as integers in Python.
Python also supports the order of operations, let us use multiple operations in one expression.

Use of add (+), subtract (-), multiply (*) and divide (/) sign in the Python:

Exponents use two multiplication operators in Python:

Order of operation in a single expression:
print(5-1 * 2)
print((5-1) * 2)

Floats, you can use floats without worrying about how they will behave:
print(0.1 + 0.8)
print(1.1 * 2.99)

Example of a square root in Python:

That's all folks for this lesson! Hopefully these things will help you.

Programmers/Developers always love rich-feature text editor, they can be more productive using such application. Sublime Text Editor has been around since 2008 and widely used by many programmers. It is written using C++ and Python programming language, the best thing about this editor is that it's cross-platform and available for Linux, Mac and Windows.
Sublime-Text editor natively support numerous amount of programming and markup languages, more functionality can be added using plugins, the plugins are mostly built by its community and maintained user free-software licenses.
Sublime-Text editor is a proprietary software but it can be installed and offers unlimited evaluation which means you can use it as long as you want it to be free. So basically the evaluation period never expires.

  • Cross platform (Linux, Windows, Mac OS)
  • "Goto Anything," quick navigation to files, symbols, or lines
  • "Command palette" uses adaptive matching for quick keyboard invocation of arbitrary commands
  • Simultaneous editing: simultaneously make the same interactive changes to multiple selected areas
  • Python-based plugin API
  • Project-specific preferences
  • Column selection and multi-select editing
  • Extensive customizability via JSON settings files, including project-specific and platform-specific settings
  • Compatible with many language grammars from TextMate
  • Auto-save, which attempts to prevent users from losing their work
  • Spell check function corrects as you type.
  • Macros and Repeat the last action.
  • Customizable key bindings, a navigational tool which allows users to assign hotkeys to their choice of options in both the menus and the toolbar.
  • Find as you type, begins to look for the text being entered as the user types without requiring a separate dialog box.
  • A wide selection of editing commands, including indenting and unindenting, paragraph reformatting and line joining.

Recent Changelog:
  • Files and folders in the sidebar will now display badges to indicate Git status
  • Ignored files and folders are visually de-emphasized
  • The current Git branch and number of modifications is displayed in the status bar
  • All changes to a document are now represented by dedicated markers in the gutter
  • Diff markers show added, modified and deleted lines
  • Improve positioning and sizing of gutter icons in some situations
  • Linux: Improved input method (IM) support - fcitx, ibus, etc
  • Linux: Fixed a crash when using GTK_IM_MODULE=xim
  • Linux: Tweaked behavior of up/down when on the first and last lines of a file to better match platform conventions
  • Improved performance with large numbers of rules in a .sublime-theme
  • Linux: Moved to GTK3
  • Linux: Various high DPI fixes
  • Support for Unicode 11.0
  • Improved rendering of combining characters
  • Linux: Color glyphs are now drawn properly on light backgrounds
  • Linux: Improved behavior of --wait command line argument when Sublime Text isn't currently running
  • More information can be found here.

Install using repository:

Available for Debian/Ubuntu/Linux Mint/other Debian and Ubuntu derivatives
To Install Sublime Text Editor in Ubuntu/Linux Mint open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the Terminal:

To install stable version add this repository

To install development version add this repository

Now to tistall Sublime Text Editor run these command

Install via Snap:

Available for Debian/Ubuntu/Linux Mint/other Debian and Ubuntu derivatives
To Install Sublime Text Editor in Ubuntu/Linux Mint open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the Terminal:

Hopefully you will find it useful!

Wine lets you run Windows software on other operating systems. With Wine, you can install and run these applications just like you would in Windows. Wine enables Linux, Mac, FreeBSD, and Solaris users to run Windows applications without a copy of Microsoft Windows. Wine is free software under constant development. Other platforms may benefit as well.

  • New MSIDB tool for manipulating MSI databases.
  • Support for custom draw buttons in common controls.
  • Many more Media Foundation APIs implemented.
  • Reimplementation of XAudio2 using the FAudio library.
  • Mono engine updated to the latest upstream.
  • More modern handling of iconic windows.
  • Improved handling of kernel objects.
  • Various bug fixes.

Install Winehq 4.4 via Official Repository in Ubuntu 19.04/18.10 Cosmic/18.04 Bionic/16.04 Xenial/14.04 Trusty/Linux Mint 19/18/17 open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the Terminal:

That's it

There’s no better way to prove your credibility in the IT sphere and improve your career prospects than earning the relevant globally recognized certifications. The Cisco certifications, in particular, are ideal for bringing your career goals to fruition.
One of the best things about the Cisco credentials is that all of them align to industry-recognized areas to help you showcase your skills in the specific field. Ranging from the Cisco CCNA credentials to CCDP, CCNP and the topmost CCIE certifications, these certifications are available for any career level.
This article gives comprehensive coverage of the Cisco CCNP TSHOOT 300-135 Certification for easy passing at your first attempt. But first of all, it is essential to understand what the CCNP Routing and Switching certification entails. Remember, this is one of the in-demand Cisco certifications and attaining it brings measurable rewards in terms of propelling your IT career to the next level.

About CCNP R&S Certification

The CCNP R&S credential checks your skills to complete the tasks related to local and wide area enterprise networks. This certification specifically verifies your planning, implementing, performing and troubleshooting skills. All these skills are tested when working collaboratively with specialists in such solutions as security, wireless, voice, among many.
If you have one-year networking experience and set the goal to advance your status on this platform to accomplish complex networking solutions independently then don’t hesitate to enroll for this program. It will greatly improve your career prospects, to say the least. It’s worth reminding that you have to take and pass the three relevant exams before attaining your CCNP R&S certification. These include 300-101, 300-115 and 300-135 exams.
Earning the CCNP R&S certification comes with various benefits with the most notable form being improving your career prospects. Some of the IT professionals employing these skills in their roles include network engineers, network architects, support engineers and systems engineers.
Now, let’s focus on 300-135 exam itself.

300-135 Exam Overview

Cisco 300-135 exam, known as Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT) acts as the final step towards getting the CCNP R&S certification. It validates your ability to deal with complex enterprise routed and switched networks.
Passing this exam confirms you as a professional with the relevant knowledge of using technology-based practices and a systematic ITIL-compliant approach to carry out network troubleshooting. That being said, the Cisco 300-135 tshoot exam validates your knowledge of six key topics related to the CCNP R&S certification.
These concepts include Layer 2 (40%) and Layer 3 (40%) technologies, network principles (5%), VPN technologies (5%), infrastructure services (5%) and infrastructure security (5%). As you can see, each exam topic contributes a specific percentage in the actual exam and the higher percentage the more the questions from the topic.

Exam Facts

As for 300-135, it is a 120-minute duration exam that tests 15-25 items related to the CCNP R&S. This exam can be taken in two languages only: English or Japanese.
Like other Cisco certification exams, 300-135 exam questions come in various formats such as multiple choice single answer as well as multiple answers. It would be wise to familiarise yourself with the exam question types prior to scheduling your exam to help instill confidence.


Any CCIE certification or valid Cisco CCNA R&S certification is a prerequisite for the CCNP R&S credential.

Exam Preparation

Looking to advance your career? Here are some of the proven tips for passing the Cisco 300-135 exam quickly and hassle-free?


Perhaps this is one of the best learning platforms you can ever get. With a variety of study materials such as online self-paced courses as well as other exam preparation materials, this platform is your number one destination to find invaluable training tools.
It is of great benefit if you are fond of studying alone. For 300-135 exam, Cisco recommends two courses; Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT) v2.0 and Cisco Learning Labs for CCNP TSHOOT v.20. The two courses are readily available at this platform to ensure adequate exam preparation.

Classroom Training

Cisco learning partners are tasked with teaching the classes led by instructors to all the aspiring candidates all over the world. This platform focuses on the Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT) v2.0 course if you are preparing for 300-135 test.


With all said and done, practicing is one of the best ways to sharpen your knowledge of 300-135 exam concepts. Cisco provides two hands-on lab environments to help you prepare for 300-135 test in the best way. They are the Cisco Modelling Labs and Cisco Virtual Internet Routing Lab Personal Edition (VIRL PE).

Cisco CCNP R&S Study Group

The role of study groups in your certification journey cannot be understated. At this stage of your exam preparation, it would be beneficial to interact with candidates treading a similar path by joining the CCNP R&S study group.

Top Web Source for Exam Preparation

Along with using prep material from the official Cisco website, you can find optional sources to supplement your training. One of the most trusted websites that provide valuable material for 300-135 exam is ExamSnap. Find a great collection of the exam dumps carefully checked by IT experts here. Practice them unlimited times tracking and improving your results with the VCE Simulator. In addition, take video courses to make your preparation process more efficient. Use any opportunity to know more and clarify the questions that seem to be complex to you.

Exam Registration

By now you should have known that all Cisco exams are administered by its number one exam delivery partner in Pearson VUE. Consequently, you can schedule your certification exam by visiting the Pearson VUE official website and registering for your exam. However, you will have to pay the exam fee worth $300.


Your CCNP R&S credential that is attained by passing 300-135 TSHOOT exam is valid for three years. The credential expires as soon as this period elapses. However, you can extend its date of expiration by earning a higher level certification such as the CCIE R&S. In this manner, your CCNP R&S certification will assume the date of expiration of the higher level certification program obtained.

Bottom Line

As you can see, attaining the CCNP R&S certification is not as hard as they’ve made you believe. Use reliable training materials from Cisco and ExamSnap and you are good to go. If you ever thought of making it in the IT sphere and propelling your career, then it would be wiser to pursue the low-level credentials as you rise through the ranks. To sum up, 300-135 certification exam is here to help you achieve your goals and now with the highlighted tips, passing this exam is much easier.

Unless you’ve set up websites before and have used web hosting, it's hard to know exactly what you should do when it comes to picking the best host. A lot of jargon is used, and a lot of the times there will be terms that only people highly comfortable on a computer will understand.
There are plenty of key aspects to be aware of when it comes to choosing a web hosting provider. Here we will go through them to give you a clear picture of exactly what you should be looking for. By the time you've finished reading this, you’ll know exactly what you’re looking for.

What type of server do I need?

There are three types of hosting available: shared, dedicated and VPS hosting. The right one for you is going to depend on the needs of your website. If you’re not going to have a high level of traffic then shared hosting is a good idea as this means you will be renting a small part of a server.
If you have a lot of traffic, then your demands are going to be greater, and you need to look at the other two options. Managing a dedicated server on your own can be difficult, and therefore VPS hosting is a good idea as this is where you can rent a whole server.


The price is always going to be a key issue when it comes to web hosting, and they will all have slightly different prices available. Most of them are run in the same way though, as they will have an incremental price increase with more features available on each level.
This will allow you to scale up your website when required. Also with price, it’s important to know that most advertise a low monthly figure that is an annual sum divided by 12. Paying on a rolling monthly contract is usually more expensive than the advertised figure.

How much bandwidth and storage you will receive

As mentioned there, there will be additional features available as you go up price ranges and two of the biggest differences will be with bandwidth and storage as these are two key components on what makes a website run smoothly.
Essentially, the more data and features that you have on your website, the more bandwidth and storage you need. If you a looking to run a simple blog with mostly words and a few pictures, this isn’t going to be much of an issue.

The level of support you’ll have

You also want to check the level of support that you are going to have from the company that you are using. This is going to be especially important if you are less confident in building a website and feel as though you might need assistance.
This support can come in the form of live chats, a telephone number or an e-mail address. Many websites also have their own internal system too. You also want to check for what information is available, as the best websites will have plenty of guides to give you the information that you want.

If they have any additional benefits

The additional benefits are going to be important too, and you need to know whether they will support what you are trying to achieve. Do they have a website builder? Are there templates available? Do they support e-commerce? These are the type of key questions that you are going to be asking yourself.
It may seem laborious at times, but doing your research in getting the right website host is going to be able to save you a lot of time and effort further down the line. If the host you’re looking at doesn’t seem right to you, then it’s time to look at the next one.

Check the reviews

Paying for a web host is the same as paying for something off Amazon, there are going to be plenty of reviews out there that are going to give you all the information that you need in order to make the right choice. Using well-reviewed and reputable sights is the best way to ensure that you will get a quality hosting provider.

It’s no longer an option to have a website for your business. In the digital world of today, a business without an online website is one destined to fail. Moreover, the best way to jump start your new –– or revive a not so new –– business is by improving the quality of its online presence. Yet, it’s often easier said than done. While having an online website is a no brainer, keeping it alive and going strong in a competitive market is not so much simpler.

The key to making sure your website is up to date and competing is search engine optimization (SEO). It’s basically how you ensure your website reaches your target demographic. The better and more SEO friendly your website is, the more people it’ll attract, and the better your business will be. One of the strongest weapons in your SEO arsenal is backlinks, one you just can’t do without.

What Are Backlinks?

Backlinks are simply the links on other websites that link to yours. So, if another website has an external link that redirects users to your own website, this is called a backlink. The importance of backlinks is they ensure your website has good traffic. More importantly, more backlinks means more exposure for your content, and it also means your website is trusted. If you think about backlinks as proof of credibility –– where other sites are dying to link to yours –– then it’s something you’ll want your demographic to experience; think of it as a recommendation of your website.

How then can you build backlinks to your website? The short answer is ethically and professionally. There are those who resort to shady methods to increase the website traction, which often results in a backlash and the website gaining notoriety for being not too honest. This is the last outcome you can hope for your business. What are some ethical, professional ways to get backlinks to your website then?

Broken Link Method

This is how it works: you’ll search for websites who can ideally link to yours –– that is, having similar content. Then you’ll contact the webmaster to report the broken links on their website, and give them same candidate links to replace those broken links –– naturally yours will be among the list. Since you’re doing them a favor by reporting broken links, which make for an awful user experience, it’s quite likely your link would end up on their website in return. This is quite an efficient and quick way because no matter how good the website and the webmaster are, every website has broken links and every website doesn’t want those broken links.

Guest Posting

This is another good and reliable way to build backlinks. The idea is simple; you write content for another website which would mean you’ll get to include a link to your own. This could be done in the text itself –– since you’ll probably be contacting websites that have similar content to yours –– or in your author biography, in which you could include links to your website. Either way, the links will refer back to your website which is what you want at the end of the day. It’s quite important however not to abuse this strategy, as many do.

Don’t go for websites that are not reputable or are somewhat shady; look for someone reliable and trustworthy enough in your niche, so as to ensure your backlink would count for something. It’s also important to keep in mind what it is you need to do. According to the article How To Build Backlinks – An SEO Link Strategy From 37,942 Anchor Texts, the most important thing to get right when building backlinks is the anchor text you use as that is the first thing Google is looking at in a natural backlink profile. Also, don’t just write the one time; contribute several articles to each website you’re guest posting at.

Help A Reporter Out

Help a reporter out (HARO) is a free service which reporters and journalists use to get information on certain articles you’re writing. What you can do is sign up for free –– it’s also quite quick –– and you’ll get weekly requests from reporters looking for help with certain reports or features. When you do get back to certain reporters about certain inquiries which you can help with, whether they’re citing you and your website as a source or citing information from your website –– which means a backlink –– either way you’re getting a backlink. Be sure to filter out requests, though and only respond to those related to your specific niche.


Testimonials are another clever way of earning backlinks. So, any company likes to brag about its sales, and some even have specific pages on their websites dedicated to that purpose, called Testimonials page. What you’ll do is make a list of products and services you’ve used for companies that have testimonials pages. Then, start writing reviews for each of those, which will naturally ask for your contact details, and then leave your feedback on the page. You’ll find that most, if not all, companies will automatically take your testimonial and link back to your website, as proof that this is not a scam of a testimonial and that the person who wrote it is a real one. This gives your website greater exposure as Testimonials is a page many visit to make sure the service or product they’re about to pay money for are legit and trustworthy.

Patience Is A Virtue

A key point in building backlinks is being patient. If you ever come across someone claiming they can sell you the secret to getting your website to the number one place on Google rankings, it’s most likely a scam. The process of building backlinks takes time and patience, because there are no shortcuts here. But you need to do it correctly and properly to ensure that the backlinks you got will do your website good, not the other way around. That is why it’s important to play it by the book so you can sleep tight knowing your backlinks will not get deleted the following day or the shady website that backlinked to yours won’t disappear out of the blue. At the end of the day, how well you play out the backlinks game will determine how much traffic your website will get, and ultimately how your business’s online presence will look like.

Financial independence is now a household name for many young people who are looking forward to succeed in their businesses. Most people dream of being successful in life, however, they don’t know how to achieve that or they’re somehow reluctant to take the risks and put in the work. Below are some five important tips you need to know before setting up your online business.

1. Mentors are everywhere

Some of the world richest people are self-made billionaires who worked themselves up the financial ladder through proper planning and sheer hardwood. Nowadays, tech-investors are enjoying a generous share of the market, thanks to the pleasant deals and opportunities available online. If you’re starting over, always seek some form of help either through online coaching, researching, or reading about your niche and how the market works.

2. Tap the power

If you’re lucky to have that entrepreneur mindset, then you probably have an idea or two of what could best work for you. Regardless of the business opportunity or niche, you’re sporting its gap in the market; it’s important to have certain things right before placing your bet in the competitive market. First, regardless of the business idea you have, it’s important to adopt an open mindset; tap the power you already have and utilize all the available resources.

The online platform is one of the vital resources open to anyone with an intention to succeed. Regardless of your business idea, there’s always a way or two to grow your brand using the internet and all the good things it brings as far as business and entrepreneurship is concerned.

3. SEO is as important as the business itself

You’ve probably come up with an idea because you think it’s worth investing your time, money and energy in it. Truth be told, though the online market isn’t a walk in the park, it’s competitive and more often than not; you’ll find mature and well-established brands already in the market. This shouldn’t, however, be a turn off since the market is big enough to accommodate everyone.

To stay ahead of the competition, SEO is your all-time friend. Proper use of the SEO techniques will ensure that you have an excellent presence throughout the internet and that your clients can easily locate your products and services. According to https://direction.com/seo-washington-dc/,
Search engine optimization should be made keenly to ensure that the right audience are targeted. Most newbies enter the market without doing their research and they later find themselves frustrated and start blaming others. Seeking professional SEO services is always the best choice when it comes to exploring the online platform.

4. Maximize on the basics

Before spending the little money you have on advertisements, make sure that whatever you’re offering is competitive in the market. Try to blend into something new from what the others are offering. Your landing page should be simple and attractive. The ordering process and navigation within your website or mobile app should be bug-free and user-friendly. Always consult a marketing strategist on the best marketing and advertisement methods.

5. It takes time and commitment

Online marketing isn’t about overnight success and all the sale-pitch emails of how one is making six figures working from home. At least, this shouldn’t be the main reason you’re going online. Before you get a steady stream of income, you’ll have understood the market, and played the big-man games of SEO marketing, email marketing, affiliate marketing, etc.

Before calling it a success in the entrepreneurship world, you’ll have to learn a lot and earn all the necessary skills you require in a lifetime. Most people are afraid of starting a business because of the fear of failing. The process is, however, worth the ride since online marketing is ever growing and evolving for the better.