Krita is a free program for sketching and painting, although it has image processing capabilities, offering an end–to–end solution for creating digital painting files from scratch by masters. Fields of painting that Krita explicitly supports are concept art, creation of comics and textures for rendering. Modeled on existing real-world painting materials and workflows, Krita supports creative working by getting out of the way and with a snappy response.

LibreOffice is the power-packed free, libre and open source personal productivity suite for Windows, Macintosh and GNU/Linux, that gives you six feature-rich applications for all your document production and data processing needs: Writer: the word processor, Calc: the spreadsheet application, Impress: the presentation engine, Draw: our drawing and flowcharting application, Base: our database and database frontend, and Math: for editing mathematics. Recently LibreOffice released the major update version 6.3 of LibreOffice.
LibreOffice install local documentation for offline help/reference. In order to make documents more elegant a set of new table styles and gradients are available. LibreOffice Writer now lets you rotate images. LibreOffice has improved the LibreOffice Online, which is a cloud-based feature that allows user to edit documents using a web browser.
LibreOffice has clean interface and powerful tools let you unleash your creativity and grow your productivity. Support and documentation is free from our large, dedicated community of users, contributors and developers.

As summer draws to a close every year, teachers, parents, and students alike all begin their back to school preparations. Whether you are sending your child off to School for the first time, readying for classroom for a new set of students, or attending your freshman year of college, there's a lot to prepare for. Shop a large selection of Back to School Supplies including Pens, Pencils, Binders, Backpacks, Notebooks, Tablets and Boys' and Girls' Clothing. If you prepare a notebook or personal computer for your kids, you may also need to prepare to install computer system and office application, where to get those?

Urcdkey, an online retailer for keys and codes for various software and games. They are already offering a big discount on the list price of almost 50 bucks and using the discount code NOOB, you can bring the price down even more!
Use the 20% discount code “Noob” for all the software keys:

Office Home and Student 2016 is made to help you achieve more with time-saving features, a new modern look, and built-in collaboration tools. Plus, you can save your documents in the cloud on OneDrive and access them from anywhere. Full, installed Office 2016 versions of Word, Excel, PowerPoint and OneNote. If Microsoft Office didn't came with your PC, you can purchase here with price $18.06, you can also purchase windows 10 for a good price.
In the unlikely event that you do have problems, Urcdkey’s 24/7 customer service support ensures that you can get the help you need when you are facing certain issues, and strict rules about user safety mean all your interactions are dealt with in the most secure manner possible - including the transactions themselves. There is also a 100 percent refund policy, should you need to return whatever it is you bought. Grab the best time to buy the best products! Believe in you, you will not regret it.

Starting a web studio isn’t the cakewalk that people like to believe. Any business requires a few important steps like establishing an LLC or corporation unless you’re planning to be self-employed. If you’re a programmer rather than a businessperson, then it can seem daunting because you’re usually buried in the code. Well, don’t despair.
Here are four tips to help you create a web studio business that survives the early few months and has a chance to grow from there.

Know Your Revenue from Your Profits

When you wish to work from a home office full time and create a profitable online enterprise, it requires getting the figures correct. Otherwise, it won’t matter how much business you do, it will be impossible to turn a profit! Whether selling services, products (or likely a mixture of both), you should figure out the profit margin for each product and service you’ll offer first. Oberlo has provided a convenient online profit calculator that does this for you, so anyone can figure out the prices they should charge their clients.
Also, consider not just what the profit margin and retail pricing should be on each product or service, but also what’s the business must generate in sales to be profitable. This is different from individual services or products sold. It’s possible to sell products profitably but fail to sell enough to cover the other business costs and to turn a profit.

Remote Business or Eventually Move to an Office?

Working from home, you may not ever need to move into an office space. This requires the company to be completely remote with freelancers and/or remote workers providing the productivity that the business requires.
For tech-based businesses, it’s often possible to sell digitally and avoid an office altogether. Sales calls will still need to be handled, but there are commercial call centers that can do this. For meetings, a meeting room can be hired for the afternoon to talk with clients or simply visit them at their office instead.

Make Your Mark Early

It’s important to make your mark early in the business world. When doing so, the brand can become well-known within a year or two and generate significant business. Other companies and individuals will then start seeking you out instead of having to constantly chase new project assignments.
For design businesses, try marketing via business forums and Facebook groups that are frequented by business owners. It’s also useful to befriend other programmers and graphics designers. This is because web studios sometimes need to outsource portfolio work that their team either cannot do or doesn’t have the capacity for.

Research the Market for New Opportunities

Look for gaps in the market that aren’t being filled or pursued. Also, think about whether it’s either too early or too late for this type of product or service? Consider whether an idea is premature or not – a great idea developed too soon will drain company resources.
Some web studios focus on one or more sectors and end up building a client list in certain industries like fiction writing, photography, dentistry, and others. Getting the first clients will be difficult but clients will have referral contacts of their own after that.
With effective cost management and a knack for marketing, a new web studio with some smart programmers and designers can flourish. Just don’t expand too soon in case there’s the occasional bad month.

Network Administrators, Support Engineers, Technicians, Specialists, and analysts are perhaps the most needed professionals in this IT-centric era. They are in charge of keeping the IT infrastructure and network of any business alive, healthy, and less prone to security threats or attacks. The latter is, in fact, one of the greatest challenges that players in this ever-evolving field have to contend with.

Cisco Systems is a global market leader in networking technology. This company happens to be among the largest vendor server provider in the world and some of its other product offerings including Ethernet Switches, security systems, and other technological solutions are highly depended on.

Why do you Need a CCNA Certification?

Let’s just say that a Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification is not a mandatory requirement. However, even with an in-depth knowledge of networking systems, strong hands-on skills, and vast experience, it may take some effort to get noticed by recruiters as this is one field with far too many talented individuals.

As such, the CCNA certification is one way of elevating your profile in the tech space. In fact, certifications and a related degree are among the requirements that recruiters look for in your CV when scouting for talent. By and large, be sure that most recruiters see the CCNA certification as authentic evidence of your skill.

Certifications Offered Under CCNA

There are several specialist certifications offered under CCNA. These include:
  • CCNA Cloud Certification
  • CCNA Collaboration Certification
  • CCNA Data Center Certification
  • CCNA Cyber Ops Certification
  • CCNA Routing and Switching Certification
  • CCNA Industrial Certification
  • CCNA Security Certification
  • CCNA Service Provider Certification
  • CCNA Voice and Wireless Networks Certification
However, by February 24, 2020, this exam has been reviewed and consolidated into one CCNA certification which replaces the above specialist certifications.

The CCNA Routing and Switching Certification

The CCNA Routing and Switching Certification is ideal for those who are interested in taking the Network Technician, Network Designer, or Network Administrator route. This certification does not only sharpen your networking skills in IT technologies but also keeps your skills up to date as technology keeps evolving. A certification demonstrates your knowledge in designing, building, installing, troubleshooting, and maintaining a network infrastructure among others.

Prerequisites for the CCNA Routing and Switching Certification Exam

There are no prerequisites for taking the CCNA routing and Switching Certification exams being that it falls only second among the basic Cisco Certifications. However, you need to have taken and passed the following exams.
Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices: Accelerated (CCNAX) exam.
Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices ICND 1 100-101 and ICND 2 200-101.

In addition, the following will be an added advantage in your career:
  • IT-related bachelor’s degree, for instance, in computer science, information science, or engineering. This is because you will have acquired some basic knowledge of technology.
  • Consider starting off with an entry-level course like the Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician (CCENT) Certification to give you an easier landing on the more advanced certification courses. This course comprises 640-822 ICND part 1.
  • Do you have working experience? Consider having at least 3 years of working experience as this will equip you with a practical understanding of routing and switching.
  • Finally, register for your exam early in advance, at least 6 weeks before the exam date.

What Areas Does the Exam Cover?

The CCNA certification exam composes of about 60 to 70 questions. The examination will test your understanding of:
  • IP Addresses, services, routing technology, and data network operation (specifically IPv4 and IPv6 routing technologies)
  • LAN switching technologies
  • Network basics
  • WAN technologies
  • Configuring, troubleshooting, and monitoring network infrastructure
  • Infrastructure security and management
  • The terminology used in routing and switching

The exam structure

You can either take the Cisco exams at authorized exam centers throughout the world or online.
CCNA Routing and Switching certification exam is composed of 50-60 questions to be completed within 90 minutes. Questions come in several formats including multiple-choice, filling the blank, simulation, as well as drag-and-drop formats.

The Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial should give you a glimpse of how the exam looks
The passing score for this exam is 85% however, this might change from time to time.


Professional certification exams, including the CCNA Routing and Switching exam, costs between $ 325 but will vary slightly depending on local taxes and the cost of inflation.

Acing the exams on the first attempt

  • Take an online self-paced course or register in a college for regular classroom programs.
  • Access free tutorials and study materials available at the Cisco website. This is an excellent study resource as you will have access to flexible E-learning programs, practice exams, study sessions, labs, and blogs.
  • Practice the skills you have learned through Cisco’s learning labs.
  • Do more studies on your own. Study textbooks and take up the CCNA practice test from credible training sites online such as Simplilearn.
  • Join a study group. There is always something positive about studying with others.
  • Consider being part of the CCNA Routing and Switching community.

Keeping your certification valid

CCNA certifications are valid over three years. To keep your certification valid, you have the following options:
  • Pass any current professional-level exam, for instance, CCNP Routing and Switching or the CCIE written exam, after which the validity of your certification will be extended to the expiration of the advanced certification.
  • Pass the current CCDE written or practical exam.
  • Pass the Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr) interview and board review
  • Pass an associate-level exam apart from the ICND1
  • Pass the current CCNA exam before your Routing and Switching certification expires
  • Take and pass any other specialist exam by Cisco apart from the sales Specialist, MeetingPlace specialist exams

Some skills you need to perfect

  • Oral and written (and documenting) communication skills
  • Organizational skills
  • Troubleshooting, analytical, and problem-solving skills
  • Customer relations
  • Knowledge of Microsoft office suite and Cisco
  • Familiarize with technology tools like routers and servers


The beauty about taking the CCNA certification is that even without a technical background, you can still get a certification based on your skills and passion. It also sets you up on a platform to advance to higher levels in experience, knowledge, and recognition.

You’ll often hear a lot of marketers say that email marketing is one of the most effective strategies. Of course, they don’t say that it’s tough or time-consuming. But if you’re a bit of a workaholic then I guess we can say email marketing is fun.

For those not into the whole workaholic thing, you’re probably looking at this article right now to find not just the best email marketing tool but also the most convenient one.

Yes, email marketing can be fun too if you get good results with minimal effort. That’s why we’ll be presenting to you some of the tried and tested tools to help you manage your business. Not only that, we’ll also be seeing which ones are worth the budget spent and which ones are a must have for your business.

How do these tools help you?

Before we start, let’s first talk about why we need marketing tools for email. Probably a lot of us wish it was that easy sending emails manually. With the trend nowadays, even emails get tricky. It feels like a contest even just to get the attention of subscribers. So where do the tools fit? They give you that much-needed advantage to gain more conversions over time.

Which one works best for you?

Now that we’re on board on why we need these marketing tools, we need to find which one works best for you. Whether we like it or not, email marketing will continue to be a part of our routine in the business. That’s why we need the best tools to make us more productive, and actually make email marketing easier. Honestly, it’s really about making life easier.

1. Omnisend

Omnisend sometimes feels like a godsend with the multiple things it can do within a short amount of time. I know we’re talking about email marketing here, but Omnisend just puts it into another level with automated marketing for SMS and push notifications.

Going back to email campaign, Omnisend makes email marketing look easy with its customizable workflows that are made to look simple. On the other hand, it can also make targeted campaigns for the intended audience in just a few clicks. Both new and old to email marketing can definitely use Omnisend to make email marketing a lot easier.

What’s the downside? You still have to pay to enjoy some of its benefits.

Standard rates go as low as $16/month with free 15,000 emails every month. After you hit 3000 subscribers, the rate goes up to $60/month. Pro plans go up to $199 and it gives access to greater customization.

All in all, Omnisend is one of the most versatile email marketing tools out there. The simple yet powerful app gives you both customization and automation. That’s a combination that sounds like it can reduce work for you all-day long.

2. Campaign Monitor

Timing is of the essence when it comes to email marketing, so why not ask Campaign Monitor to do it for you? This email marketing tool is the most specialized one out there, focused solely on email marketing as its art and trade.

Campaign Monitor’s bread and butter is a clean and well-targeted segmentation of your subscribers plus additional personalized features to capitalize on these campaigns. Their segmentations also look as clean as their user interface for the workflow which is called the Visual Email Builder and Visual Journey Designer. Yes, it looks as good as it sounds.

What’s the downside? It’s not integrated to Shopify and other ecommerce sites. That’s an obvious issue that can’t easily be fixed even by third-party apps. Also, advanced segmentation is behind a paywall of $149/month. While the basic plan only costs $9/month for 500 subscribers, the overall price can be a bit troubling especially since prices go up once you have more subscribers.

All in all, Campaign Monitor is the email marketing app that you need if your focus is only on email campaigns that are detailed and highly personalized. The benefits are more towards increased conversions, but it also comes with helpful features that make it more accessible and less time-consuming.

3. Mailchimp

Do you hate robots but have some sort of fascination with monkeys? Then, Mailchimp might be what you’re looking for. This tool has no room for monkey business. It is hailed as the entry-level email marketing tool that has the best learning curve and a set of features that both experts and newbies can use.

Mailchimp teaches new users how email automation functions and how it provides added benefits to the business. Its visual design coupled with simple interface guarantees users to not be intimidated by the whole process.

What’s the downside? You might eventually seek better features after you’ve gotten used to email marketing automation. Mailchimp can be used for free for up to 2,000 subscribers and 12,000 emails monthly. The pro plan costs about $199 but might leave you wanting because of its lack of customization.

All in all, you won’t feel like you’re monkeying around when you start learning this app because of how linear learning how to use it feels like.

How do you decide which one to use?

Find the tool that fits your style and your budget. It’s highly recommended that you choose whichever tool is more intuitive and comfortable for your use. You’ll most likely be doing email marketing a lot, so you’d better be choosing whichever tool makes you more productive.

The news about iTunes cancellation has, on one hand, been a surprise for many. Some, on the other hand, saw it coming much earlier, indicating the apparent problems that the app’s users had to struggle with for years.
In June, Apple presented three new apps instead of good old iTunes

So, while some are already missing the old platform and others think its dismissal to be for goo, the question still stands. Are the new standalone apps objectively better than iTunes?

To answer this, let's take a look at the reasons for iTunes’ cancellation and examine technical problems that led to this decision. Obviously, the issues with the app itself might have not necessarily played a significant role in this decision - marketing goals are not to be ignored either. So, in itself, the fact of iTunes cancellation doesn’t mean that the platform was in that much of a crisis.

Before we delve into the analysis, let us reassure you. iTunes is not completely dead. It’s still working on Windows PCs. As we’ll see later on, there are a lot of compelling users to keep using the platform in its original version. Windows users can still install an iTunes download free and enjoy the original experience.

Now, let’s cut back to the chase.

Then, what was wrong with iTunes?

Craig Federighi, Apple VP of Software Engineering, put this well at the Worldwide Developer Conference - the very same event where the demise of iTunes was first announced. People love everything iTunes does, he said and added that they keep wondering when will the platform be capable of doing more.

Then, he made a joke about adding a mailing client to iTunes as well, to illustrate how unrealistic user expectations are. So, this is the main reason why the company decided to split iTunes up. The growing complexity prevented the program from delivering the best user experience and mad technical maintenance much harder.

I am going to miss my iTunes

While some people cheered for iTunes demise, others got very upset. How could an iconic solution that revolutionized musical industry be split up? The truth is, we indeed saw this decision coming.

If you were using iTunes from its earliest periods, you perhaps can’t fully understand just how over-equipped the software has become in 18 years. Look at the list of the most significant changes of iTunes. Keep in mind that each of those significantly altered its functionality and interface.

If you used iTunes in those earliest days, you recognized that it was simple, but you probably did not recognize how much more complex it became. Since Apple added in features more or less one at a time, its complexity crept up on you.

  • On March 2001, Apple released an additional feature that an iPod integration;
  • In 2003, the iTunes Store was added - that’s when that famous musical revolution began;
  • A few years later, iTunes was turned into a video play and store as well, even though it was already one of the most complex music platforms out there;
  • Facebook and Twitter integrations made it easier to share music online.
Side-by-side comparison of old and new iTunes

Now iTunes is a jack-of-all-trades, specializing in music, film, TV, podcasts, device synchronization, CD ripping, music sharing, and ringtone making. Apart from some failed projects (like Ping, a closed social networks for musicians), Apple was successful in its each iTunes update.

However, it’s the bigger picture that was the problem. It was remotely easy to carry on with updates if you are an experienced user. For new Apple users, it was overwhelming, to say the least. The functionality was just too much to understand. To perform a simple setting, you have to go through dozens of tabs.

So, the main issues of all-in-one iTunes were the following:
  • Too much additional services. It’s unrealistic for new users to get the hang of all add-ons and complimentary services. The tremendous potential of iTunes is almost never used to its full extent - because who needs so many features on a regular basis?
  • The platform was consuming a lot of CPU. On Mac, this issue was less apparent, although users noted that over the years iTunes has gotten much heavier. On Windows, however, it turned almost into a disaster. The application was eating about half of the CPU, and it was fixed only recently.
  • Cluttered interface. iTunes’ core functionality, the one we know and love, ended up buried in endless panels and sub-windows. Finding a necessary setting or action was slowly but surely becoming a quest.

How are three standalone apps solving the problem?

First thing first, these apps are not per se new. The functionality of iTunes has been split between separate tools, so you will find the experience a lot familiar. We took a look a the best version of these tools are ready to present our opinion.


The Podcast tool is similar to the Music app in terms of its interface and functionality. The only difference is that instead of music, your playlists consist entirely of podcasts.
Settings became much simpler, too

You see clear reports on what podcasts you rented and when, and keep all the subscriptions and downloads in check on a single tab.

The disadvantages of new applications

Now that we’ve been through the good aspects of new applications, it’s time to talk about the bad and the ugly. As with any new update, it will take a lot of time till the new solutions will fully catch up in terms of functionality and rich user experiences to iTunes.
  • Embrace bugs. If you have spent a lot of efforts to make order in your iTunes playlist, you will perhaps be badly surprised. Some settings have entirely disappeared from Apple Music, and now your playlists will look different from what they have used to be. You’ll have to reorganize the audio files from scratch to adapt it to the new functionality.
  • You’ll have to switch between three different apps regularly. If on iTunes all features were available in a single window, here you’ll have to change tabs and get used to three, although similar, but still different interfaces.
  • There is no conclusive data on the synchronization between new apps. How will three solutions interact with each other? That remains a question. In iTunes, synchronization was the crucial part of user experience, and keeping it this way in new tools is essential. Well, we’ll see more on that once the official version is released.

New apps also occupy more space on the panel

The final verdict

Overall, new apps solve all the main issues that iTunes has been struggling with lately. By splitting functionality into three pieces, the developers have achieved their primary goal - reducing the tool’s complexity and decluttered the interface. Now, instead of one monolith app, we have three small services, dedicated to smaller tasks.

However, dismissing iTunes as outdated or problematic is just wrong. For one thing, having all features available in one app is more comfortable than having to switch from one solution to another constantly. Also, so far, new apps don’t offer quite similarly rich user experiences. While simplicity is faster and more comfortable, complexity provided more options.

Luckily, the old platform is still available for Windows. If you feel nostalgic about the old platform, you can get the old feel on the Windows PC.

Let’s hope that developers, caught up in new apps, won’t abandon the Windows version. It would be a shame, considering that its recent updates were truly decent. In any case, old iTunes remains quite relevant, and new apps show a lot of promise. We’d say this is all good news.

If you have used Windows in past or you still use MS Windows, you may know that MS Paint is very handy tool. Linux doesn't have its own paint or photo editing application, few Linux distributions include such application developed by 3rd party.
'Drawing' is a simple basic image editor, which functions similar to Microsoft Paint but targets the Linux desktop. It is open-source and available for free under license GNU GPL v3. We may not be able to get everything done with this application but we can use it for screenshot editing, basic image editing and so on.
Drawing supports popular image formats such as JPG, PNG, and BMP. Using this application you can quickly add call-outs, text on memes, and other basic operations such as crop, scale, flip, saturate, and rotate etc. The selection tool allows you to define an area (rectangle or free), which you can move, cut, copy, paste, edit with canvas tools, export, open as a new image, etc.

Drawing tools:
Tool Options
Pencil Dashes, eraser, …
Line Arrow, dashes, gradient …
Arc Arrow, dashes, …
Insert text Font, shadow, font size
Rectangle Filling
Circle Regular circle or oval; Filling
Polygon Filling
Free shape Filling
Color picker
Paint Remove a color

Install using PPA

To install Drawing in Ubuntu 19.10 Eoan/19.04 Disco open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the terminal:

Install using FlatPak package

To install FlatPak in Ubuntu 19.10/19.04/18.10 open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the terminal:

To install FlatPak in Ubuntu 18.04/16.04/Linux Mint 19/18 open Terminal (Press Ctrl+Alt+T) and copy the following commands in the terminal:

To install FlatPak in other distributions, checkout instructions here.

Now install Drawing:

That's it

Blender is a cross-platform community-driven project under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and runs equally well on Linux, Windows and Macintosh computers. Its interface uses OpenGL to provide a consistent experience. It provides a broad spectrum of modeling, texturing, lighting, animation and video post-processing functionality in one package. Through its open architecture, Blender provides cross-platform interoperability, extensibility, an incredibly small footprint, and a tightly integrated workflow. Blender is one of the most popular Open Source 3D graphics applications in the world. It supports the entirety of the 3D pipeline—modeling, rigging, animation, simulation, rendering, compositing and motion tracking, even video editing and game creation.

If you are looking for the best place to download PlayStation portable (PSP) games for your computer, you are on the right place!

The PSP was the first handheld console released by the famous brand SONY. It was launched internationally and more than 80 million of uniting were sold all around the world. Released back in 2004 (2005 for some countries) it was on his time the portable console with the highest quality of graphics available at the moment. After almost 10 years of manufacturing PSP consoles, SONY finally decided to stop creating PSPs in 2014.
PSP Games can be downloaded from different websites in the form of ROMs, which are the convenient format to run video game files and keep your progress saved.
First of all you will need a PSP emulator to run your desired PSP games on PC, there are a good variety of different emulators that you can try to see what works best for you, such as:
You can find all of these emulators in the website as well as a huge list of PSP ROMs ready to be downloaded in seconds. This website allows us to find most of the PSP ROMs titles available as well as the best ones and most recommended by the players themselves.
At the end of the day all of them are very similar and barely have any noticeable changes from the side of the player, but the important thing here is that each one of these emulators has different hardware compatibility, which means that if one of these emulators doesn't recognize your graphic card or any other relevant component of your computer, you might just try the next one and it's very likely that sooner or later you will find one that works for you. After all most of us use computers built and designed by the same brands so in reality finding hardware incompatibilities when it comes to PSP emulators it's incredibly hard.
The PSP really marked an entire generation and also showed the world that it was possible to have high quality graphics on a portable console.
If you are wondering if it takes a powerful PC to run a PSP emulator, let me tell you that the answer is no. Even if you have a laptop or an all-in-one computer you should be able to run the games without any problems, regardless of having a dedicated graphics card or not. This is because in the last years the computers have improved their performance significantly and the PSP is very old at this point.

Running roms PSP is fairly simple, once you have the emulator downloaded and installed you simply use it to open the ROM file of the video game you are interested in playing and that you have previously downloaded. You might be thinking if saving the game progress works as well, and yes it does for the most part but in some specific cases it might not work properly. If you are gonna play some of the most popular titles this won't be a thing anyways because those have more people putting effort into making them run properly on computers.
There are so many good PSP titles that the most nostalgic ones haven't forgotten. Here we provide a list of some of the most popular and sold titles of all time but if you are looking for a more specific PSP video game we recommend you, you will most likely find it there.

These are just some of the games that will keep you playing for hours with interesting background stories and lots of missions! Consider giving PSP games a try, we can guarantee you that you will have lots of fun playing some titles! And remember, you can find PSP emulators as well as PSP ROMs in the website completely free and without irritating ads or click funnels! Simply click on the "Download" sign and you are ready to go!

Before any product hits retail shelves, it has to go through an extensive prototyping period. Many new inventions don’t get made at all unless there is a suitable prototype to function as a proof of concept. Look at the presentations from shows like Shark Tank, any presentation with a functioning prototype is much more compelling than even the best sales pitch without one. Of course, sometimes not even the inventor knows whether or not the prototype will need some minor adjustments. This is exactly why rapid prototyping exists: it allows those in the early stages of product development the opportunity to more finely tune their product, usually in order to secure new funding from elsewhere. Those are just a few of the most obvious reasons to consider rapid prototyping, many people use rapid prototyping technology at just about every step of their product creation process as it allows for very useful tweaks to be done long before thousands of any one item are ordered from the factory.

Let’s start with the basics and work our way to the more complex aspects of rapid prototyping, shall we? It is a very expansive industry, after all.

What Is Rapid Prototyping?

In simplest terms, rapid prototyping is a manufacturing technique in which full scale 3D replicas of a part or unit can be made. While some choose to only make a 2D model, experts at Prototech Asia ( explain that when designing a new product that uses metal or plastic, it’s important to create a 3D design to make sure you will have a uniform prototype. Typically 3D printers are employed in this endeavor and it is mainly to check for any glaring issues with regards to how the part will move or function normally. Kinks are rapidly worked out during this phase, it serves mostly as quality control for the future, more advanced units. Many things from simple figures to electric cars were at one point at the rapid prototyping stage. Many new features on cars are also tested using rapid prototyping technology. There are many different ways to create a rapid prototype, all with their own pros and cons. Some methods allow for practically functional replications of a 3D model in common materials while some function solely to display the shape of an object. The only thing that really separates rapidly prototyped materials from conventionally created materials is that we are still refining how precisely our 3D printers can make a model.

Making a model that’s relatively the same size is one thing, but having to make thousands of models with dimension tolerances within an inch of each other is still something 3D printing has yet to master. Still, rapid prototyping plays an important part in modern product development, especially among novel industries like aerospace engineering and the medical industry.

Methods Used For 3D Rapid Prototyping

Now that we know what rapid prototyping is, we can get to the bottom of how we actually manage to pull it off:

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

With SLS technology, a laser is used to make several layers on a build plate coalesce into the desired shape. Complex geometries can be replicated accurately but sanding is required afterwards if a smooth finish is desired. Both plastic and metal prototypes are made with SLS, some eventually serving as a master cast/mold for replicating the product further. A model is melted together layer by layer that is very close to the model’s exact specifications. SLS is a very functional way to churn out prototypes, although durability with this method isn’t the greatest. Because of the strong laser used and lab setup required, SLS style printers are seldom seen inside of a personal home. Parts made with this kind of prototyping philosophy are functional, chemically resistant, very stiff, and self supporting.

If plastic is used, it is imperative that a coating be added to the model immediately as it will be porous otherwise. Total accuracy to desired tolerances is very good unless polycarbonate is used during the printing process.

Fused Deposition Modeling

Most people commonly associate 3D printing with this method. A spool of plastic filament is melted and then the structure is made layer by layer by squeezing the melted plastic into the shape designated by the user. Most people present during the printing process describe it as oddly satisfying to watch. It is considered a form of additive manufacturing since each layer is “added” one by one.FDM is noted for how inexpensive and easy to use it is. Since the color of the plastic can be customized, many choose FDM for a prototype that doesn’t have to be supremely functional but accurately represent how the protect is expected to look in its finished state. These types of models are most often employed by hobbyist builders, good FDM printers are starting to show up at department stores across the nation, so there is evidence to suggest home prototyping is on the rise. The benefits of FDM in rapid prototyping would be how quickly and easily slightly different models could be created to test what design is ultimately the most effective.

Stereolithography (SLA)

One of the earliest forms of 3D printer, SLA printing is ingenious in how it works. A bath of a substance sensitive to light is solidified from the inside out by using UV light to control what shape is being made. This form of rapid prototyping makes for smooth models with some durability to them quickly and easily. SLA printed materials are often used for later vacuum casting, but it still holds strong as a common rapid prototyping method. One common source of SLA made materials are medical models that can be created from the data on a CT scan or MRI. In the world of rapid prototyping, SLA remains popular for being able to make even the most irregularly shaped prototypes very early on in their development.

Binder Jetting

What’s kept 3D printing niche is that there isn’t an effective device that can make high volume orders possible and truly replace regular kinds of manufacturing. In binder jetting, a print bed covered in metal powder is sprayed with a special liquid that creates a single layer. This process is repeated until the entire model is made. Once it is finished in the printer, it needs to be cured to get off excess liquid and properly fuse the metal together. Since high fidelity metal parts can be created, this is perhaps one of the few rapid prototyping strategies that may one day be employed large scale for items we’d expect to buy in a store. Binder jetting is excellent for putting the rapid in rapid prototyping as models are made at great speed. The layers are read as cross sections of the 3D model. If you’re still confused at all about how binder jetting works, simply think of the name. Binder is thrown around via jets which ultimately culminates in the desired shapes being created. Also adored by the people who run the printers is that the structures made are self supporting during the entirety of their creation. Loose powder functions to support the model on a molecular level.

These printers don’t play around, they usually start in the $50,000 range, with some models selling for much more.

Laminated Object Manufacturing

With this particular technique, metal foil, paper, or plastic laminate sheets are laid down layer by layer and cut to specifications with a laser. As older layers are cut away the surface lowers in kind to accommodate the excess plastic. Once all of the layers have been applied, the prototype is ready. It is extremely inexpensive and products a good prototype to show the shape and size of the item, but not much of anything else. Finished models can be machined or further manipulated easily. Also, large parts can be made easily since there’s no need to control conditions to maintain chemical reactions. One of the few rapid prototyping methods that’s used exclusively for making these kinds of models, LOM will always be one of the cheapest and easily available options. Besides rapid prototyping itself, laminated object manufacturing is also employed during the marketing phase when a product is still a prototype to allow for promotional materials to be made. A high volume amount of models made in this way is much cheaper than having to recreate the models through normal methods.

Digital Light Processing

Similar to SLA, DLP prototypes are made using a bath of photosensitive material cured by specific wavelengths of UV light. A slight difference is that instead of lasers DLP only requires a projector light, this fact makes it a less costly unit overall. In fact, rudimentary digital light processing printers can be made by someone at home with enough dedication plus a little trial and error. DLP differs in that it requires curing after the fact, but it is more efficient with regards to the amount of photo resin used which makes it a much more cost effective method on a per unit basis. Also noteworthy is that DLP structures are not self supporting, so supports material has to be added to any DLP endeavor. DLP is excellent when precision prototypes are necessary that are very close to the desired dimensions in a replicable way. The prototypes are typically non-functional but represent very closely what the final product is expected to look like.

Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

For this process, the conditions of the printing bed must be kept very pristine and controlled. Metal powder is fully welded onto the build plate through the use of a laser and a specially calibrated chamber. Instead of melting parts strategically, it can be said that SLM techniques fully melt the material, this translates into more uniform and desirable end product. Besides being used in rapid prototyping, it is also an effective way to make small parts with complex geometries. Desirable materials such as titanium and stainless steel can be used in this process, especially those that require very precise machining. Excellent prototypes that are more or less completely functional are possible thanks to SLM. It is gaining steam among various industries as a great form of rapid prototyping since very specialized equipment can be made that will be able to proceed directly to the testing phase.

How Do People Choose?

Three main aspects come into rapid prototyping: price, adherence to tolerances, and speed. The “best” form of rapid prototyping, if it did exist, would be a method in which models of practically completed quality were able to be made cheaply and quickly, with supreme replicability of these attributes. Usually one of these aspects is more important than others to a particular creator so they’ll choose a method that suits their needs & budget best.

So there you have it, just about every way there is to turn a block of unfinished materials into a 1:1 replication of anything you can draw up in AutoCAD. As these methods become more and more sophisticated, there might be a point where they aren’t used for rapid prototyping, but instead for mass production. The 3D printer stands to revolutionize our ability to make & test new products on the fly. There are even firms that exist solely to make the designs of other people, so cost is rapidly declining as well. Soon we’ll be living in a world where every neighbor & friend you have might have designed something themselves & use it every single day thanks to 3D printing. It is interesting to note that 3D printers aren’t quite at the level that they can make, say, custom Lego blocks.

Our current printer technology can’t make bricks that reliably fit together as perfectly as conventionally made blocks to. One day though, I’m confident we’ll be able to make our own custom Lego parts at will. Of course I joke, but that is the end goal of most of these printing technologies: the ability to create just about anything at the drop of a hat. Instead of companies taking months to years to create better products, it could simply be a matter of a few rapid prototypes later instead of such a long, drawn out R&D process.

Microsoft has been doing a lot of things right with Windows 10 Pro, the best operating system ever made, keeps getting better and just got its long-awaited May 2019 Update. If you’re planning to buy one for your new PC, or need to upgrade your old system – don’t look back! Now is definitely the right time!

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Regular and free emails might be good enough for average users, but when it comes to your business, you must not settle for anything less than the best. For your business, you must opt for something that assures you entirely about the security and path of the mail if you want to know about some of the best secure email services, which might come in handy if you render online assignment help.

Top 5 secure email services to boost your business

1. Proton Mail

This free and open source email provider offers encrypted mail services and is based out of Switzerland. You can make this work through your desktop, or your Android and iOS phone. When it comes to Proton Mail, no one can get their hands on your email due to its end to end encryption model. This means that your emails are completely secure and in good hands. This can especially prove to be useful for your business if you offer a service to buy essay papers online. The service provides two-factor authentication, and a feature to send password protected emails to anyone. It also supports CSV contacts import. However, the mail comes with a slight limitation as to the inability to change the signature on a free account and lack of support for IMAP, SMTP, and POP3.

2. Counter Mail

For someone who is seriously concerned about the privacy of their email, this mail is one of the ideal options. Counter Mail offers a through and secures implementation of the Open PGP email in browsers. Users can also set up a USB drive to encrypt their emails and the decryption key to it is saved on the device. You will require a password to access the same. Decryption would be a seemingly impossible task even if a hacker were to happen to steal your password. With this mail, you will be able to modify a lot of settings in your account, allow email filters and make use of anonymous email headers. The USB option offers an added layer of physical security, which is quite simple to implement and use. The email provides support for IMAP and does not store logs of IP addresses. It also includes a built-in password manager and safe box. However, with this mail, you will not be able to send an encrypted mail to a non – user. This might be a problem in case someone has asked you to do my statistics homework and receive it on mail.

3. Hush mail

With excellent support for IMAP and POP, it also offers optional two-step verification. You will also be able to import your contacts by making use of a CSV file. It also allows using a spam filter and autoresponder. With the Hush mail, you get 10 GB of storage. With the free account though, you get minimal storage and requires the use of an alternate email address and phone number, when trying to sign up for verification process.

4. Mail fence

The best part about this email feature is that a digital signature can be used to approve the authenticity of the user. The email supports two-factor authentication, which is an added layer of security for email users. A spam blocker keeps away all the spam emails which could flock your inbox. All type of contacts can be imported through outlook or even Gmail. The mail also provides calendar and file storage to its users. However, the mail suffers from limited storage features and may require an alternative email address to receive the activation key. The fact that the mail does not make use of ads or offers various email settings, open for customization and changes, is enough to merit its inclusion in this list.

5. Tutanota

From the perspective of design and level of security, this mail provider is quite similar to Proton Mail. From sender to receiver, all emails are encrypted and can be decrypted only on the device. No one else can access the private encryption key. The web interface for the mail is quite easy to use and seamlessly easy to understand. The mail offers a separate interface for Android and iOS users and also provides up to 1 GB of storage space. The open source mail supports spam filters to keep your inbox clean. However, features such as alias and email rules are only available with paid accounts. Also, it is not possible to import contacts in bulk with this mail. The mail offers custom folders to organise messages and attachments. Most of the features in this mail are available only with the paid version though.
If your business is engaged in providing marketing assignment help and more such services, it will be beneficial for you to make use of these email services.

Since the turn of the 21st century, technology has been on an upward trajectory of improvement that no one saw coming. For that matter, who knows how good it will be in the near future? Another question that could be asked, given how much we use it and need it today is, how much of a need will it be going forward? The reason that question comes up is that some people are arguing we have become more dependent on it than we need it to be in our everyday lives. Nonetheless, we simply can't ignore that it has done wonders to our lives. From integrating itself in the cars we drive to the way we eat our food, technology is only going to become more detailed in its integration in our lives.
That said, one of the more interesting places that technology has shown itself in is education. More so than anything else, technology has allowed us to create resources that we need such as E-Learning tools, handbooks, and other forms of digital content just to name a few. Also, with how important reference books and illustrated guided have become in the education field, technology has also improved the way we produce, teach, and outsource these materials. Needless to say, there are way more examples that illustrate how crucial technology has been to the development of our education system. With all of this in mind, let's go over five more ways technology helps create resources for education.

5: Helps Create Authoring And Publishing Content Software

When it comes to education, one of the most, if not the most, important aspects of it is writing. More specifically, authoring or publishing an essential part of the overall development of education. Because of this, it comes as no surprise that technology has found a way to help create software for content creators through resources such as a HAT tool. In many ways, it has sped up the process in which valuable and informational content for education is distributed.

4: Allows For An Interactive Classroom Setting

Another obvious part of the education system is the classroom setting. Throughout history, a welcoming and enjoyable classroom setting has proven to be the best way for students and learners to become more interactive and productive overall. Well, as we could guess, technology has also found a way to make the classroom setting more engaging and interactive than ever. What this has resulted is the welcoming and enjoyable setting that then allows for more productivity from students.

3: It Helps Create Exam-Prep And Certification Material

As far as an education system in a school or business measures its success, a big part of it comes from how effective they are at getting high exam scores and certification rates. Of course, a good indicator that a class is doing well is that they have high scores and achievements in these two categories. That said, technology is now being used in a way where it can create accurate and effective exam-prep and certification material.

2: Can Be Implemented To Make Digital Grading Systems

With how important measuring exam scores are at determining the success of a classroom, another important aspect that goes along with that is grading systems. In other words, you can't measure exam scores accurately without determining and averaging grades first. Where technology comes into play in this scenario is that it helps create digital grading systems that can precisely average, curve, and produce a grade for a student. This way, a student knows exactly where they can improve themselves to help the overall success of the classroom.

1: It Allows For The Easy Access Of Updated Resources

Perhaps the most discussed topic in any education system is the ability to keep up with updated material. As a result of this, classrooms everywhere have been left with their own ways to try and solve this issue. At the very least, it's good that education systems across the nation are taking notice of this issue. Worth noting, this is even more important for education systems in businesses where upgraded material is a necessity. Nonetheless, technology is slowly but surely finding ways to allow for easy access to updated resources. In a perfect world, technology will improve to the point where only upgraded resources are being taught.